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Thread: Herpes Simplex

  1. #11
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    KKH Doctor on STI

    KKH Doctor on STI
    Source: Today Tuesday, 27 | 10 | 2009
    Source: http://www.healthxchange.com.sg/news...r-on-stis.aspx

    Could you have it and not know Not all STDs show obvious symptoms

    IT WAS his first sexual experience with his then-girlfriend. But Eugene (not his real name) ended up getting more than he had expected.

    Shortly after, his girlfriend told him she had tested positive for genital warts - something she unknowingly picked up from a former sexual partner. Eugene's subsequent check up revealed that he, too, had contracted the infection.

    "I noticed tiny bumps around my genitals, but I didn't think anything was amiss because I felt no discomfort," said the 25-year old.

    Contrary to popular belief, not all sexually-transmitted infections (STI) show obvious or hideous symptoms. Hence, it is possible to contract a STI and not be aware of it, said doctors whom TODAY spoke to.

    "Some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may be symptomless," said Dr Christopher Chong, a consultant obstetrician, gynaecologist and urogynaecologist at Gleneagles Hospital. He will be speaking on the topic next month as part of the Women's Health Series - a lineup of women's health talks and workshops launched by the Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society of Singapore in partnership with the People's Association.

    According to Dr Chong, more than 10 per cent of men and up to 70 per cent of women with gonorrhoea and Chlamydia - two common types of STI contracted by Singaporeans - may not experience any symptoms or discomfort. Other common STIs in Singapore include syphlis, genital herpes, genital wards and Aids.

    Chlamydia Trachomatis, which affects both the mouth and genital areas, is one of the most common STI afflicting women, accordingly to Dr Wee Horng Yen, consultant and director of the Women's Wellness Centre at KK Women's and Children's hospital.

    Because the infection can be a silent one, woman may contract Chlamydia from sexual partners who appear healthy, said Dr Wee.

    In other cases where symptoms do show up, the problem may simply be due to a lack of awareness. "The patient may be unaware as they do not know the symptoms, and some of these can disappear without treatment. But this does not mean that the person is cured," said Dr Chong.

    While it is not unusual for STI victims to feel anger, anxiousness and even depression, a few may also be in a state of disbelief.

    "Some are puzzled as to how they could have gotten it, especially if they have a monogamous relationship, and they claim to have been faithful," said Dr Chong.

    What they don't realise, warned Dr Wee, is that even one unprotected sexual encounter, as in Eugene's case, may have dire consequences. (STI can cause health complications such as brain and spinal-cord damage, blindness, cervical cancer and infertility.)

    For instance, a man with a history of genital herpes can pass the infection to his wife, despite the fact that he has been faithful since marriage, Dr Wee said.

    "The man may shed the virus in his semen without him experiencing any symptoms. His wife gets infected, and can get very distressing genital herpes symptoms such as severe genital pain, ulcers and difficulty passing urine," he added.

    Condoms, said Dr Wee, can greatly reduce the risk of STI.

    WARNING SIGNS
    According to consultant obstetrician, gynaecologist and urogynaecologist, Dr Christopher Chong, common STI symptoms include:

    * genital discharge (from bladder opening or the vagina)
    * genital rashes, sores and blisters
    * growths and ulcers around the genitals
    * swelling of lymph nodes in the groin area










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    Last edited by Meteor; 07-12-2012 at 08:19 PM.

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    Inactivation of HIV

    Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus by Betadine.

    Kaplan JC, Crawford DC, Durno AG, Schooley RT.


    Source

    Infectious Disease Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114.


    Abstract

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the etiological agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), was treated with either Betadine (povidone-iodine) Solution or Betadine Surgical Scrub. HIV inactivation was analyzed using the viral reverse transcriptase assay or by observing the cytopathic effect produced in HIV-infected, H-9, T-cell cultures. The minimum effective Betadine dose was 0.25% for complete inactivation of HIV that was treated for various time intervals (immediate vortex to ten minutes). The titer of HIV stocks used in these experiments (10(5) TCID50 per mL) was greater than amounts generally detected in clinical specimens. Our results provide a rationale for the use of povidone-iodine as a topical antiseptic against HIV in the clinic or laboratory.


    PMID: 3667119 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]








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    Last edited by Meteor; 07-12-2012 at 08:23 PM.

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    Genital Herpes

    Study shows herpes is common in suburban populations, with Denver up to 20 percent
    Medical Studies/Trials
    Published: Monday, 24-May-2004
    Print - Study shows herpes is common in suburban populations, with Denver up to 20 percent Printer Friendly Email - Study shows herpes is common in suburban populations, with Denver up to 20 percent

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    According to a recent study of 36 primary care physician (PCP) offices in relatively affluent suburban areas of six U.S. cities, one in four people (25.5 percent) tested positive for the virus that causes genital herpes, despite the fact that only four percent of all those tested reported a history of the condition. As the study shows, genital herpes infection rates were high even among suburban, educated and mid to high income populations.

    The results of this study were published in this month's issue of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. "Genital herpes continues to spread because very few people with the virus know they have it.

    The prevalence statistics are important for both patients and doctors because they show that people of all backgrounds are at high risk for contracting genital herpes.

    This is especially important because people can be contagious even when they do not have symptoms of infection," said Peter Leone, lead author of the study and an associate professor of medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. "The study should encourage everyone to practice safer sex, get tested, and if they are infected learn how to manage the disease."

    The study took place at six randomly selected PCP offices in relatively affluent areas in each of six U.S. cities (Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver). At each office, approximately 150 people age 18-59 were randomly chosen to participate. All blood samples were sent to a central laboratory. A positive test result indicated they were infected with HSV-2, the virus that causes genital herpes (GH). All samples were analyzed using the Focus Technologies HerpeSelect(R) 2 ELISA IgG test designed specifically to detect HSV-2 antibodies in the blood. In total, 5,732 people were screened; of 5,452 people who provided an analyzable blood sample, 5,433 completed a questionnaire.

    The final sample was 75 percent white, 14 percent African American, and 4 percent Hispanic. Eighty percent were employed full- or part-time, 74 percent had some college or higher education, 45 percent had a household income of $60,000 or higher, and 68 percent were married/living with their partner. The overall weighted HSV-2 seroprevalence was 25.5 percent -- that means 1 in 4 people tested positive for the virus that causes genital herpes. The seroprevalence ranged from 13.4 percent in the 18-29-year age group, to 25.2 percent (30-39 years), to 31.2 percent (40-49 years) and 28.0 percent (50-59 years). Seroprevalence among women (28.3 percent) was greater than that among men (22.0 percent), and was consistently higher across all age groups. Of the 1,387 people that tested positive for genital herpes, only 12 percent knew they were infected.

    The study showed that employment status, marital status and income did not reduce the chances of having genital herpes. Those who were employed full- time had a prevalence of 26 percent, married individuals had a prevalence of 24 percent, those living with their partners had a prevalence of 26 percent, and those with household incomes of $60,000-$80,000 had a prevalence of 24 percent while those with incomes over $100,000 had a prevalence of 21 percent. Those with some college had a prevalence of 28 percent and college graduates had a prevalence of 21 percent. The study was sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline, one of the world's leading research-based pharmaceutical and health care companies.

    In 1991, an estimated 1 in 5, or 45 million, Americans were infected with the virus that causes genital herpes. Experts estimate that up to 60 million Americans have the virus that causes genital herpes and the CDC estimates that approximately 1 million people are infected each year. However, as many as nine out of ten of those infected are unaware they have genital herpes and may only have experienced a mild initial outbreak without recognizing recurring symptoms of the disease. Symptoms of genital herpes may include painful or itchy clusters of blisters, bumps and rashes in the genital area, or on the thighs or buttocks.

    Many people confuse genital herpes symptoms with other conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), ingrown hair, jock itch, zipper burn, allergic reactions, vaginal infections, a cut or a scratch, or irritation from sexual intercourse or tight jeans. Though the disease is most contagious during an outbreak, it can also be contagious between outbreaks when no signs and symptoms are present. In fact, in clinical studies, the majority of people got genital herpes from a partner who knew they had genital herpes but reported no signs or symptoms at the time of recent sexual activity.

    http://www.gsk.com/









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    Nation Women Health Resource Center On Genital Herpes

    Courtsey of National Women Health Resource Center:

    Genital herpes is a contagious infection caused by a virus known as herpes simplex virus (HSV). According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, genital herpes affects an estimated 45 million Americans. Although the infection can be serious for newborn babies and people who are chronically ill, rarely is it fatal. While there is still no known cure, genital herpes does respond well to treatment.

    There are two types of herpes simplex virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Both types are related to the family of viruses that cause chicken pox and shingles. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 can cause genital herpes.

    "Oral herpes" causes sores and blisters on the lips, gums and in the mouth-typically referred to as cold sores. Oral herpes is very common and can be spread by kissing or oral sex. It is usually caused by HSV-1.

    "Genital herpes" causes sores in the genital area. The sores it causes often are painful, and sometimes itchy. Genital herpes also can cause serious health problems in infants who become infected by their mothers during delivery and in persons whose immune systems are weakened. Genital herpes is usually caused by HSV-2.

    For reasons not entirely clear, many persons with genital herpes either have no visible symptoms or don't recognize the symptoms. The virus can be transmitted with or without symptoms being present. But perhaps the major concern with both oral and genital herpes is that you remain infected for life and there is no cure.

    When it does cause symptoms, genital herpes can produce sores in and around the vaginal area, on the penis, around the anal opening and on the buttocks or thighs. Occasionally, sores also appear on other parts of the body where broken skin has come into contact with the virus. HSV remains dormant in certain nerve cells of the body for life, causing periodic symptoms in some people while remaining dormant for life in others. Like other genital ulcer diseases, genital herpes increases both the risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, by providing a point of entry or exit for HIV. In addition, HIV-positive persons who are not being treated for HIV because their immune system is suppressed often have severe herpes outbreaks.

    One of the most bewildering and frustrating aspects of genital herpes is the periodic outbreak of sores that infected persons often experience. Recurrences of genital herpes can be upsetting and sometimes painful. Moreover, the emotional stress over transmitting the disease to others and disrupting sexual relations during outbreaks, as well as informing your sexual partner of your infection status, can take a toll on personal relationships. With proper counseling, improved treatments and prevention measures, however, couples can cope with and manage the disease effectively.

    Genital herpes is acquired by sexual contact with someone who is infected. A decade ago, it was believed that the virus could be transmitted only when the virus was active and causing symptoms, such as sores and blisters. Now, it is known that the virus can spread even when there are no symptoms. In fact, it is believed that genital herpes is spread most often when no symptoms are present (known as asymptomatic transmission). In addition, recent research suggests that a large proportion of people who appear to have no symptoms do have symptoms that they just don't recognize. If you have oral herpes, you also can transmit the infection to the genital area of a partner during oral-genital sex. An estimated 30 percent of genital herpes infections in the U.S. are due to HSV-1; presumably, many of these were transmitted during oral sex. No documented cases have been spread by contact with objects such as toilet seats or hot tubs. While rare, transmission is possible from skin-to-skin contact through open sores. Prudent hand-washing and personal hygiene decrease or nearly eliminate that risk.









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    Managing Herpes

    There is currently no known herpes cure. A lack of a cure may appear disheartening to those afflicted with herpes simplex virus, but the good news is that herpes treatment can go far in keeping the illness in check and managing herpes symptoms.

    If you are experiencing viral genital herpes symptoms, genital herpes testing is available and you should seek a conclusive herpes diagnosis. A number of herpes tests exist to determine the presence of HSV and which strain of the virus you may have; HSV-1 or HSV-2. Once the existence of genital herpes or oral herpes is conclusively verified, the next step is to investigate the various available herpes treatment options. From antiviral medication to changes in diet and psychological support, a number of effective herpes treatment choices are available to manage herpes signs and symptoms and to reduce viral shedding and outbreaks. Be sure to check back often as we are frequently updating and adding information including the upcoming genital herpes pictures section to help you better understand herpes stages and manage the herpes virus.




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    Herpes Viruses Association (HVA) Part 1

    Herpes Viruses Association (HVA) Part 1

    Welcome to the Herpes Viruses Association (HVA). We are here to help people who have genital herpes simplex (or facial, when we call it 'cold sores') to help themselves. For the related condition, herpes zoster, please go to the Shingles Support Society web site.

    If you want to know about the very common (but often feared) herpes simplex virus - the cause of genital herpes - this on-line resource can help you. You can click here for information on the other six herpes viruses (there are eight in all - none of the others cause genital herpes). The HVA can answer any question you may have. For extra support and regular updates, you subscribe on line here. Or you can post in a cheque with the information we require: name, address, leaflets needed. Short answers can be given by email but complex questions might need the help of a telephone helpline volunteer. Or come and talk to us at the London meetings, open to all - see What's New page.

    See our comments on the article in the SUN's article, 29th April. here.

    If this website helps you, please help us with a donation. (We rely on your donations/subscriptions.)
    If our helpline has helped you, as well as considering a donation, please also send us an email with feedback about the call: how you rate it out of 10 (with 10 being 'top marks') and if you can recall what date it was then we can identify the helpliner...

    See our blog for latest views and news.

    What other 'herpes' sites don't tell you
    Most people have herpes simplex - 70% have facial herpes (cold sores) and 10% have genital herpes in the UK. These figures are even higher in other countries including the USA and the developing world.
    Three quarters don't know they have it: 1 in 4 will have no symptoms; 2 in 4 will have only mild symptoms and are unlikely to be diagnosed; 1 in 4 will have more noticeable symptoms and will be diagnosed.
    Herpes simplex is seldom of any medical importance - some people are quite ill when they catch it but so are some people who catch flu.
    It is not incurable - your immune system cures it very well and stops recurrences for most people.
    There are good treatment methods for the unlucky few - medication or herbal treatments and improved lifestyle management.
    It's not the only infection that stays with us once we catch it - chickenpox and glandular fever also hide in the body but no one makes a fuss about them.
    Other web sites may exaggerate the worst cases and seek to make you believe herpes is a big deal. Don't be fooled. It's as big a deal as you want to make it. You don't have to worry about it. Join the HVA if you are worried and we'll help you not to be. We arrange workshops as well as social events.

    Professor George Kinghorn, GU consultant in Sheffield told us: "What I am suggesting to you is that to be infected with a herpes simplex virus is a state of normality. We tend to make this into a big deal instead of to say that to be infected with herpes virus is something that happens to all adults, some with symptoms and some of us without." Read the full text of Professor Kinghorn's talk here.

    Read this first: If you have not been diagnosed with herpes simplex, do not jump to conclusions! Herpes simplex can appear in various ways so the best way to be sure about what you have is to get a swab test done at a Sexual Health Department (GUM clinic) at your nearest general hospital or search here. We cannot diagnose what might be affecting you by email or on the telephone helpline.

    Still have questions? We have answers.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------








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    Herpes Viruses Association (HVA) Part 2

    Herpes Viruses Association (HVA) Part 2


    back to top

    There are eight human herpesviruses. (Medical texts refer to herpesvirus as one word.) Also, every animal species that has been investigated also has its own herpesvirus. What these viruses all have in common is the ability to hide out in the body without causing symptoms, and then reappear at a later date. The human herpesvirus family includes:


    1. herpes simplex virus type 1 (cold sores and whitlows on fingers and hands, also half new cases of genital herpes)
    2. herpes simplex virus type 2 (genital sores, also sometimes cold sores and whitlows)

    The other viruses caught quite different illnesses. These are:

    3. varicella-zoster virus (also called herpes varicella/chickenpox and herpes zoster/shingles)
    4. Epstein Barr virus (often abbreviated to EBV)
    5. cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    6. human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6)
    7. human herpesvirus 7 (HHV7)
    8. human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8 or it can be called KSHV - see below)


    1 - Herpes simplex virus type 1 (short version - see also cold sores):
    How common? By age 15 around 25% of UK population, by age 30 around 50%. The rates are much higher in other countries.
    How is it caught? By direct skin contact with the affected part, when the virus is active.
    How long before it appears (incubation period)? 4 or 5 days is usual, but it could be as soon as 2 days or as long as two weeks - or even longer.
    What does it cause? Often nothing, at its most obvious it causes a flu-like illness followed by blisters or ulcers on the affected skin. If it recurs, there are likely to be fewer blisters.


    2. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (short version - see also our Frequently asked questions):
    How common? Around 25% of the sexually active UK population. Over the whole country between 3% and 10%. The rates are much higher in other countries.
    How is it caught? By direct skin contact with the affected part, when the virus is active.
    How long before it appears (incubation period)? 4 or 5 days is usual, but it could be as soon as 2 days or as long as two weeks - or even longer.
    What does it cause? Often nothing, at its most obvious it causes a flu-like illness followed by blisters or ulcers on the affected skin. If it recurs, there are likely to be fewer blisters.


    3. Varicella-zoster virus (short version - see also our shingles and post-herpetic neuralgia pages):
    How common? Almost 100% of UK population by adulthood. However in tropical countries the rates are much lower.
    How is it caught? Chickenpox is caught like flu: virus floats in the air, from the breath of an infected person.
    When it returns it is called shingles. No one can catch shingles, but if you have not had chickenpox and you have skin contact with shingles, you can catch chickenpox.
    How long before it appears (incubation period)? Two weeks is usual, but it could be as soon as 7 days or as long as 23 days.
    What does it cause? A flu-like illness followed by blisters over the body. If it recurs, as shingles, the blisters will be a restricted area, often around the ribs. Older people may develop post-herpetic neuralgia, a pain the nerves that may be severe and may last for months or year. See our pages on how this is treated.


    4. Epstein Barr virus (EBV, also called glandular fever, mononucleosis, mono, kissing disease):
    How common? Virtually everybody worldwide.
    How is it caught? Saliva.
    How long before it appears (incubation period)?
    What does it cause? In babies and children, the symptoms are often so mild that they are not noticed. In teenagers and adults it causes a fever, swollen glands, aching joints and it may cause ongoing fatigue. If it recurs, it will cause the same symptoms but they will not be as strong and will not last as long. People on drugs following organ transplants may suffer from ill-health caused by this virus. If a news report features 'herpes' and 'cancer', it is usually about EBV as this very occasionally causes Hodgkin's lymphoma or nasopharyngeal cancer. These cancers are most likely to occur in children with malaria in tropical countries and in adults in China.


    5. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    How common? Half the population has CMV by a young age, with higher rates of infection in poorer areas.
    How is it caught? The virus is present in saliva, breast milk and other secretions.
    How long before it appears (incubation period)? ... to be completed ...
    What does it cause? In adults, it is usually caught with no symptoms at all. Sometimes it causes the same symptoms as a mild glandular fever (see above).


    6. Human herpesvirus 6 (roseola infantum/exanthem subitum)
    How common? By the age of 2, almost all babies have type 6B virus.
    How is it caught? Saliva, and, in older people, possibly semen and other secretions.
    How long before it appears (incubation period)? 5 to 15 days.
    What does it cause? There are two types 6A and 6B. Type 6A has not been shown to cause any disease. Type 6B causes roseola in babies between 6 months and 1 year old. It is usually a mild infection, which is self-limiting. Symptoms include a fever lasting for a few days, swollen glands and normally a mild rash which appears after the fever goes. Occasionally children will have a swollen liver. Is is a major cause of fever induced seizures in babies. Since it is usually caught in childhood it is rare for adults to get this virus. If they do it is a more serious illness than in babies. HHV-6B has rarely been associated with a variety of viral illnesses, including mononucleosis syndromes, focal encephalitis, and pneumonitis.


    7. Human herpesvirus 7:
    How common? By the age of 3, almost all children have HHV-7.
    How is it caught? Saliva, and, in older people, possibly semen and other secretions.
    What does it cause? Sometimes it may cause a mild childhood rash (called exanthem subitum).


    8. Human herpesvirus 8 (also called Karposi's sarcoma herpes virus or KSHV) How common? This virus is quite common in some parts of the world. In Europe and the US it is not very common - under 10% have it. However, a survey in Lusaka, Zambia, found that 39% carried antibodies to this virus.
    How is it caught? In Western coutnries it may be transmitted during sex. However in countries where it is most common, it would seem to be caught through saliva during childhood.
    How long before it appears (incubation period)? This virus does not cause symptoms right away. It can take as much as 40 years for the symptoms to appear. (In Uganda, 50% of children were found to have this virus before they reached puberty.)
    What does it cause? This virus features in stories about 'herpes' and 'cancer' as it has been found to be a cause of Karposi's sarcoma - a skin cancer found in people with AIDS.



    If this information has helped you, please help us with a donation.
    http://www.herpes.org.uk/acatalog/Donations.html







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    Last edited by Meteor; 07-12-2012 at 08:51 PM.

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    Herpes Virus: 8 Types

    Herpes virus: 8 types


    The herpes family of viruses includes 8 different viruses that affect human beings. The viruses are known by numbers as human herpes virus 1 through 8 (HHV1 - HHV8).

    Human herpes virus 1

    Human herpes virus 1 (HHV1) is also known as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1). It is typically the cause of cold sores around the mouth. HHV1 can also lead to infection in the genital area causing genital herpes usually through oral-genital contact, such as during oral sex. HHV1 infections are contagious and are usually spread from skin-to-skin contact with an infected person through small breaks in the skin or mucous membrane. The HHV1 virus is more likely to be spread through things like sharing eating utensils, razors, and towels from a person who has an active lesion.

    Human herpes virus 2

    Human herpes virus 2 (HHV2) is also called herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2). It typically causes genital herpes, a sexually transmitted infection. However, it can also cause cold sores in the facial area. Like HHV1, the HHV2 infection is contagious and is spread by skin-to-skin contact. The main route of transmission is through sexual contact, as the virus does not survive very long outside the body.

    Human herpes virus 3

    Human herpes virus 3 (HHV3) is also called varicella-zoster virus. HHV3 causes chickenpox. It can also cause a recurrent virus infection of the skin, which is called herpes zoster or shingles. Shingles occurs when dormant varicella-zoster virus from an initial bout of chickenpox becomes reactivated. Like its close relative, HHV1, herpes zoster likes to infect skin cells and nerve cells. This virus may also recur along nerve fibre pathways, causing multiple sores where nerve fibres end on skin cells. Because an entire group of nerve cells is often affected, shingles is generally much more severe than a recurrence of herpes simplex. The lesions generally appear in a band-like or belt-like pattern occurring on one side of the body and are often accompanied by itching, tingling, or even severe pain. Healing usually occurs in 2 to 4 weeks, and scars may remain. Postherpetic neuralgia is a complication of shingles where the pain associated with the infection can persist for months and even years. Most people who experience shingles once do not experience it again.

    Human herpes virus 4

    Human herpes virus 4 (HHV4) is also known as the Epstein-Barr virus. It is the major cause of infectious mononucleosis, or "mono" - the "kissing disease." It is a contagious infection and is transmitted through saliva. Coughing, sneezing, or sharing eating utensils with an infected person can pass the virus from one person to another.

    Human herpes virus 5

    Human herpes virus 5 (HHV5) is the official name of cytomegalovirus (CMV). CMV is also a cause of mononucleosis. In people with healthy immune systems, the virus may not even cause any symptoms. It can be sexually transmitted, can cause problems to newborns, and can cause hepatitis. CMV can be transmitted through sexual contact, breast-feeding, blood transfusions, and organ transplants. CMV infection is one of the most difficult complications of AIDS. It may lead to diarrhea, severe vision problems including blindness, infections of the stomach and intestines, and even death. For a virus that barely causes a problem in most people with healthy immune systems, it can be amazingly nasty in people with damaged immune systems, such as people with AIDS.

    Human herpes virus 6

    Human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) is a recently observed agent found in the blood cells of a few patients with a variety of diseases. It causes roseola (a viral disease causing high fever and a skin rash in small children) and a variety of other illnesses associated with fever in that age group. This infection accounts for many of the cases of convulsions associated with fever in infancy (febrile seizures).

    Human herpes virus 7

    Human herpes virus 7 (HHV7) is even more recently observed and is closely related to HHV6. Like other human herpes viruses, HHV6 and HHV7 are so common that most of humankind has been infected at some point, usually early in life. HHV7 can also cause roseola, but it is not clear what other clinical effects that this virus causes.

    Human herpes virus 8

    Human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) was recently discovered in the tumours called Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS). These tumours are found in people with AIDS and are otherwise very rare. KS forms purplish tumours in the skin and other tissues of some people with AIDS. It is very difficult to treat with medication. HHV8 may also cause other cancers, including certain lymphomas (lymph node cancers) associated with AIDS. The fact that these cancers are caused by a virus may explain why they tend to occur in people with AIDS when their immune systems begin to fail. The discovery also provides new hope that specific treatments for these tumours will be developed that target the virus.


    Stephen Sacks, MD, FRCPC, with revisions by the MediResource clinical team






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    Dangers of Kissing

    Dangers of Kissing
    The dangers of kissing



    2:00 PM Monday Aug 17, 2009




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    SYDNEY - It's one of life's simplest pleasures, but even a kiss comes with a health warning.

    The symbol of affection is a major transmitter of herpes, warns the Australian Herpes Management Forum (AHMF) ahead of the roll-out of a national ad campaign.

    AHMF executive director Tricia Berger says while kissing "demonstrates love and affection" and it was a "very common activity" it posed risks to both adults and children.

    "No parent kissing their child or partner kissing their girlfriend wants to pass along the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), but people should be aware this is the main method of transmission," says Ms Berger.

    "Once you have been infected with HSV-1 or HSV-2, the virus stays in your body for life and can be reactivate at any time."

    More than 75 per cent of Australians carry HSV-1, the variant of the virus otherwise referred to as cold sores.

    It is commonly acquired as a child from contact, often a kiss, with adult relatives.

    Despite the high prevalence, only 30 per cent of adults in Australia and New Zealand report experiencing cold sores.

    When a person becomes infected, Ms Berger says they will not always have typical cold sore symptoms.


    Article continues below



    "If you have a herpes sore on or near your mouth, its likely that you'll pass the virus along to whomever you kiss," she says.

    "It is also possible to transmit the virus even when there are no apparent sores or symptoms, but the risk is higher when the sores are visible."

    HSV-1 is also responsible for 40 per cent of genital herpes cases, while about 12 per cent of people have the virus' HSV-2 variant which is the most common cause of genital herpes.

    - AAP










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  10. #20
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    Herpes Causes Blindness

    Girl's sight restored in NZ first
    By Martin Johnston


    4:00 AM Saturday Dec 5, 2009




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    Natalya Skelton, 6, with an image of her eye showing stitches in the corneal graft. Photo / Steven McNicholl

    Natalya Skelton went blind in one eye when she was 3 after suffering a severe complication from a virus.

    But now, three years later, after an international search for a surgeon willing to take on such a young child, Natalya's sight has been restored by a delicate corneal transplant operation, a New Zealand first for one so young.

    The blindness in Natalya's left eye started lifting within days of the surgery at the Greenlane Clinical Centre early last month.

    Now 6, Natalya went with her mother, Kirsten Anderson, yesterday for a check on her corneal transplant with her Auckland District Health Board eye surgeon, Professor Charles McGhee.

    She said she loves her "new eye".

    "Because I can now see colours and stuff. And I like to paint pictures of McTum. He's Charles' fat cat."

    In September 2006, Natalya caught chickenpox, a virus which for most children causes just a mild infection and itchy, troublesome blisters.

    In Natalya's case, however, it is thought the ulceration and scarring that damaged her left eye's cornea was caused either by the chickenpox or the virus which causes coldsores.


    Article continues below



    Ms Anderson, from Queenstown, said she initially had difficulty finding comprehensive treatment for Natalya after her eye became red and painful.

    "Suddenly, I found myself driving well above the speed limit to Invercargill to try and arrest a huge lesion that appeared in Natalya's left eye.

    "It was black and red and swelling by the minute.

    "We arrived at Southland Hospital, but it was too late; the damage had been done. She had lost the surface of her cornea and the tissue underneath."

    The cornea is the clear layer at the front of the eye.

    "It was like having a coldsore in your eye. There was nothing that could be done, other than steroids and a hope that she wouldn't lose the eye altogether," Ms Anderson said.

    "For the next three years we endured a system which offered us little hope or help. 'She'll be blind from now on,' they said, 'and that's sad, but look on the bright side: she has one good eye and she'll manage with that'."

    Ms Anderson said she was furious, and sad, but did not give up hope. She searched internationally for help and eventually found Professor McGhee.

    He said Natalya now had about 30 per cent normal vision in her left eye and he expected this would eventually increase to around 80 per cent - good enough for a driver's licence.

    But she still faced risks such as her body rejecting the transplant, a flare-up of the original virus - she is on anti-viral medication to minimise this risk - and knocks to the eye.

    She has 16 tiny stitches in her eye to help the corneal transplant, from a deceased donor, to attach to the remaining parts of her own cornea. The stitches will be removed after about a year.

    Professor McGhee said four children aged 6 or younger, including Natalya, had had corneal transplants in the past decade in New Zealand.

    Three were the traditional operation that removed a full-thickness "button" from the cornea, but Natalya's was a newer, more technically demanding approach which slowly sliced through the cornea's microscopic layers and left the inner layers in place.

    A normal cornea is 0.5mm thick, but the damage to Natalya's meant it was just half that in places. The inner layers are 0.05mm, the thickness of a human hair.

    The surgeons look through powerful microscopes and use hand-held blades and a "trephine", a circular blade whose frame "sucks" on to the cornea.

    Leaving the lower corneal layers reduces the chances of Natalya's body rejecting the transplant, because the corresponding layers can be removed from the donor graft and it is one of these layers that is involved in immune system rejection.

    Around 250 corneal transplants are done each year in New Zealand, and there is a constant need for donated corneas.

    More than half of people who die are suitable eye-tissue donors.

    For information on donation, call the National Eye Bank, 0800-373-7537
    By Martin Johnston | Email Martin









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